Sphere of influence: Victory
Famous portraits: Nike from Samothrace (but other portraits exist).
Nike (in Greek Νίκη) is the personification of victory. She was the daughter of Pallas and Styx, and the sister of Cratos, Bia and Zelus (other personifications). She enters the stage of classical myths in the service of Zeus during the Titan wars. Her mother has brought her and her siblings there and Nike was his charioteer. After the victory of Zeus, she and her siblings were appointed as senteniels, standing next to the throne of Zeus. This is the only time Nike is active in any mythological stories, but she is sometimes depicted as the god's charioteer from time to time.
She is generally portrayed with wings - one of the few gods and goddesses in classical Greece to be so. She could be seen with several different attributes, all to do with her role as the personified victory. It is the vessels needed for a libation (the ritual pouring of liquids as offerings to higher powers), a wreath to crown a winner, a lyre for playing a victory song, and so on. The list can be made much longer.
She is sometimes seen as closely related to the goddess Athena, and sometimes the two goddesses are merged so that Nike turns out to be nothing more than an aspect of the more prominent goddess.
Nike from Samothrace, the headless statue which can be seen here, is a prime example of Hellenistic art - found on the island of Samothrace. The exact date of the statue is not known, the classical assumption is somewhere 220-190 B.C., but dates from 250 to 180 B.C. have been mentioned too. The statue is now on display at the Louvre, Paris, where it has been since 1884.
Eustochium was born as Smeralda (Italian for emerald); some sources say she was born on Good Friday, but the truth of the matter the exact date is not known and it might be a fact added later to further underline the holiness of the woman. She was born as the daughter of Bernard, a wealthy merchant and his wife, the countess Matilda (Macalda) Romano Colonna of Calafato – a very pious woman. Over all the upbringing of the girl was very centered around the Christian faith and it made a great impression on the young girl.
When her father died, in 1346, she entered a convent of Poor Clare – Santa Maria di Basicò – having experienced visions of the crucified Christ. Some legends claim the nuns were reluctant to receive her, her brothers having threatened to burn the convent down would she join it. Either this is another apocryphal fact, or they just did not follow through, whatever the reason she did become a nun, now with the name under which she would become famous, Eustochium, and the convent was not burnt down.
Eustochium was a very pious woman, and she soon found the convent far too lax for her taste. This made her ask for permission to found a new convent, nearby, with a stricter rule. This was granted in 1457 – and the new convent followed the Franciscan rule. The convent moved to Montevirgine in 1463 and the following year she was elected abbess. By now her mother and sister had joined her convent. She was very pious woman, being very influenced by the life of Christ and among other things writing a treatise on the Passion (though that text is now lost). But her life was hard and she was not very strong in body. She passed away in 1468, around thirty-five years old. She was buried at Montevirgine.
A cult soon developed, and her uncorrupted body was described by the archbishop of Messina in 1690. The cult was formally approved in 1782 and she was canonized as a saint in 1988. Her feast day is nowadays January 20, but earlier it was February 16. Her body is still venerated too. Her name is sometimes given as Eustochia, but it is not entirely correct and should have the ending of -um.